Posted on : September 23, 2018 by Clinic One on Bhaktapur
What vaccines do we offer?
Are you seeking vaccination services in Kathmandu Nepal for preventative care, for immediate accidental measures, for study abroad, as a traveler, or for your children and elders?
What vaccines do we offer?
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Flu or the Influenza
- Tetanus and Diptheria (Td)
- Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis)
- Meningococcal Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate
- Varicella (Chicken Pox) (GCCINJ)
- ( HPV ) Human Papilloma Virus
- Haemophilius Type B Conjugate
- Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)
- Japanese Encephalitis
- Yellow Fever
Different countries have their own immunization schedule based on prevalent infections, vaccine availability, and at-risk population. Nepal Government has been implementing the National Immunization Program through the Child Health Division of the Department of Health Services (DoHS). Children under 5 years of age and pregnant ladies are routinely vaccinated.
What vaccines are routinely administered in Nepal?
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)
Tuberculosis is common in developing and underdeveloped nations. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. BCG has a history of 80 years and it is one of the most widely used vaccines. Approximately more than 80% of neonates and infants receive this vaccine in countries where it is part of the national childhood immunization program. This vaccine protects against meningitis (infection of layers covering the brain) and disseminated tuberculosis in children. It is administered at birth by injecting the vaccine into the skin.
This combination vaccine contains Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Three doses are injected in the muscle through the skin at the age of 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks each.
- Diptheria: Bacterium causing Diptheria to infect the throat and releases a toxin into the bloodstream. The toxin can cause damage to nerves, brain, or heart. It is transmitted from one person to another through droplets expelled during coughing or sneezing.
- Pertussis: Pertussis is also called Whooping Cough. It is spread through droplets or by direct contact with infected throat or nasal discharges. It is caused by a bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. It can cause serious illness in infants and patients with weak immunity.
- Tetanus: Tetanus is caused by the toxin produced by the bacteria which infects a wound. The bacterium is found in soil and the intestinal tracts of certain mammals. A wound is infected by tetanus bacterium after being exposed to soil or animal excreta. The bacterium then multiplies in the wound and releases toxins. The toxin affects the nerves.
Hepatitis B virus infects and damages the liver. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person’s body fluids (during unprotected sexual intercourse, the sharing of needles during injection drug use or contact with contaminated blood or blood products), or during childbirth from an infected mother to her baby.
Hemophilus influenzae is a bacterium that can cause serious diseases in children and in adults with weak immunity. Haemophilus influenzae type b can cause meningitis, pneumonia, infections of joints, covering of the heart, and can result in death.
Caused by Poliovirus, Polio, or Poliomyelitis causes crippling and life-threatening diseases. The virus affects the brain and spinal cord causing damage to nerves. There are two types of polio vaccine 1. Oral vaccine: given through mouth as drops and 2. Inactivated Polio Vaccine administered as an injection. In Nepal, oral drops are administered as three doses at 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The inactivated vaccine is administered at 14 weeks of life.
Vaccine for both diseases (Measles and Rubella) is administered in a single dose. Measles is caused by a virus. It causes rash, fever, and cough and the complications include infection of ear and lungs. Rubella, also known as German measles, is a mild viral infection. If the mother is infected during pregnancy, it can cause severe birth defects in the child. The M-R vaccine is administered at 9 and 15 months.
Japanese encephalitis virus is the main cause of viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. When encephalitis develops up to 30% of patients are likely to die and permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30%–50% of those with encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis vaccine is given at 12 months.
Pregnant ladies are recommended to receive tetanus and diphtheria shots. Two doses are given one month apart during the second trimester of pregnancy.
Two vaccines that are recommended for healthy adults are Pneumococcal Vaccine and Influenza.
Pneumonia is an acute respiratory illness caused by a lung infection. It can be fatal in elderly persons and persons with weak immunity. The pneumococcal vaccine protects from pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcal pneumoniae.
Influenza virus causes flu which is highly contagious. Simple flu can be distressing with loss of productivity. It can cause serious complications like pneumonia. Influenza vaccine is administered as an injection into the muscle and the vaccine should be repeated every year.
Types of Vaccines
There are four types of vaccines:
These contain weakened micro-organisms. As vaccination with these vaccines resembles natural infection, the resultant immunity is strong and long-lasting. The vaccine can act differently in patients with a weak immune system and organ transplant recipients. Patients with these conditions must consult their health care providers before getting vaccinated. Examples of the live vaccines include Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR combined vaccine), Rotavirus, Smallpox, Chickenpox, Yellow fever. These vaccines should be stored in the refrigerator until administered making them difficult to transport in remote and resource-limited places.
Vaccines with killed micro-organisms are called inactivated vaccines. These provide a weaker response when compared with live attenuated vaccines. These vaccines require booster doses to maintain immunity. Inactivated vaccines include Hepatitis A, Flu shot, Polio shot and Rabies.
Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines
These vaccines contain certain components from the microorganisms. These components can be protein, sugar or part of the capsule (the outer covering of the microorganisms). These produce a strong immunity which may sometimes need booster doses to maintain the protection. These are safe even in organ recipients and persons with weak immunity. Examples include Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b), Hepatitis B, HPV (Human papillomavirus), Whooping cough, Pneumococcal disease, Meningococcal disease, Shingles.
Toxoid vaccines contain toxins produced by micro-organisms. The immunity obtained by vaccination with a toxoid vaccine is directed against the toxin of the bacteria or virus. An example of a toxoid vaccine is ‘Diptheria and Tetanus Vaccine’.
A Brief History of Vaccination
“Prevention is better than cure.” One of the most effective processes of prevention against certain infectious diseases is through vaccination. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined vaccines as “biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease”. The vaccine contains a component that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microorganism, its toxins or one of its component proteins.
The vaccine stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and “remember” it so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms in future encounters. Prevention of disease has been one of the major goals of modern disease.
Initial vaccine development attempts date back to 1796 AD when Edward Jenner invented a method to prevent Small Pox. The first vaccine consisted of material taken from the blister of a Cowpox patient. Routinely administered vaccines were produced on an industrial scale in the early 20th century. Initial vaccines included pertussis vaccine (1914), diphtheria (1926), and tetanus (1938). These three vaccines were combined to form DPT in 1948 and administered through a single injection.
Before 1955 polio used to cause epidemics and resulted in lifelong disabilities in patients. Polio vaccine was licensed in 1955 and with its widespread use polio is in the brink of eradication. The latter half of the 20th century saw the development of multiple vaccines like measles, mumps, rubella, Hepatitis B, Hemophilus influenza type B. As the new vaccines are being developed, the vaccination schedules have been revised accordingly.
Nepal started its pilot vaccination program in 1979 with DPT, tetanus, and measles. From 1989 the program has been expanded to the whole country with an aim of universal vaccination in children. There is no schedule for adult vaccination in Nepal from the National Health policy/program.
The human body is protected against infections by the immune system. The immune system works by recognizing and removing infection-causing agents like bacteria and viruses. These functions are achieved by special immune cells and antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help to eliminate the microorganisms and subsequently help the patient to recover.
The immune system also develops memory to eliminate or fight off the offending agent in future encounters. The next time a vaccinated or previously infected person is exposed to the organism, the immune system detects and produces the antibodies to eliminate the infection. This response protects the person from disease development. For example, if a person develops a viral infection called Mumps, he or she will be protected from the mumps virus for entire life.
But the benefit of vaccination distinctly outweighs the risks. The benefits of vaccines are evident by the decreasing number of patients with infections against which population-based vaccination was carried out like polio, diphtheria. Vaccines have been created to make our life easier.
Remember the last flu which had you down for days. The same flu can kill a person especially infants, elderly and patients with reduced immunity. A vaccine against Influenza virus can significantly decrease the chance of acquiring flu and preventing days of suffering.
Vaccines are important as they protect the recipients from becoming sick due to infection. Vaccinated persons are likely to get a milder form of the disease if they happen to be infected. Infections are also less likely to spread in the community if there is universal vaccination.
Vaccination for different age-groups
Children are usually vaccinated as per the country’s policy for immunization. Additional vaccines, which are not administered by Government, can be administered at privately owned clinics. Examples of these types of vaccines include Rota Virus, Hepatitis A, Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine. Clinic One has been providing these vaccination services in Kathmandu, Nepal for all age groups.
Different countries have their own schedule drafted for adult vaccination. For healthy adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA recommends Influenza, Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Zoster, Human Papilloma Virus, Pneumococcal and Meningococcal vaccine based on previous immunization status, age group and gender. For details regarding vaccines in adults, the reader is suggested to consult a doctor.
Certain groups of people are also required to have vaccines for optimum protection. These groups are
- Health care workers
- Travelers to certain countries
- People who inject drugs, men who have sex with men
- Residents of long term care facilities like nursing homes
Side effects and Risks
Many people are worried about the adverse effects of vaccines. Most of the vaccines are safe and have no side effects. Side effects due to vaccines are minor and transient. These include mild fever, mild rash, headache and body aches. Rarely serious allergic reactions can occur.
Other than the Government administered child vaccination, there are a limited number of clinics and hospitals offering other vaccines and adult vaccines. Clinic One has been established as a preventive clinic in Lalitpur. With international standards, it is one of the best vaccination service provider in Kathmandu, Nepal. It has similar pricing for Nepalese and foreigners. It has been providing vaccinations for both adults and children. It has been providing cost-effective and prompt preventive medical services.
We care for all your local, travel outside Nepal, and trekking health needs. If you are –
- Visiting Nepal and want to stay safe in your hiking and trekking.
- Visiting outside Kathmandu, to Bhutan, Tibet, or Northern India.
- You are a Nepali traveling out of Nepal to study abroad and want to get a vaccination in Kathmandu Nepal as per your university requirements.
- You are a new parent and want to immunize your child.
- You want to take care of your parents and relatives.
Get immunized and stay safe. Get your vaccines paperwork with you as you travel. Get vaccines before your trip so you enjoy your trip vs worry about your health.
For vaccination and inquiries, Call us at 9861966614 or email us at [email protected].
Keywords: Vaccination Kathmandu Nepal, Vaccination services in Kathmandu Nepal
Citation: NCBI Han S. Clinical vaccine development. Clin Exp Vaccine Res. 2015;4(1):46–53. DOI:10.7774/cevr.2015.4.1.46
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