Posted on : October 1, 2020 by Clinic One Team on Bhaktapur


Thermocoagulation, as the name suggests, is the surgical coagulation of tissues by the application of heat.

It is also referred to as “thermal ablation,” which means removing the body’s tissues by coagulating them with heat treatment and hence is seen as an alternative technique to cryotherapy.

The procedure is carried out by the use of a simple, portable, and lightweight device that weighs less than 2 kg and is therefore convenient to use in every situation.

It uses mono-polar electro-surgical energy, which is converted into heat by an electro-surgical generator, to target the tissue.

Thermocoagulation is unlike cryotherapy, which uses cold temperatures to remove tissues, but instead uses heat to remove the diseased tissues of the body.

Similarly, it cannot be compared to high frequency (HF) coagulation, where the temperatures reach up to 320⁰C, but instead, the maximum temperature attained in thermocoagulation is 120⁰C.

For example, to ensure the treatment of “Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” the maximum temperature that is required is 100⁰C, which ensures the maximum depth of necrosis and efficacy comparable to cryotherapy.

Appearance of Thermocoagulation

Although it is difficult to ascertain the exact date when thermocoagulation was introduced, the technique of heat ablation of tissues has been prevalent throughout the past.

Nevertheless, the use of modern instruments and techniques, such as lasers for thermocoagulation, has been seen over the past couple of decades.

Why is Thermocoagulation done?

thermocoagulation for cervicitis nepal

Thermocoagulation is done as an alternative technique for general “screen and treat” services in low- or middle-income countries where resources are limited.

Furthermore, this ablative (tissue removal) technique is suitable to treat low-grade squamous epithelial lesions in the cervical regions of females.

In other words, it is routinely used to treat precancerous cervical lesions in females with “chronic cervicitis,” thus providing an effective alternative to cryotherapy.

Early detection of precancerous lesions on the cervix is critical for preventing or treating cervical cancer.

Request an appointment for Thermocogulation for Cervical Cancer Prevention >>>

Who is eligible to do this Procedure?

Thermocoagulation can be performed by medical professionals who specialize in certain areas, such as general surgery, vascular surgery, gynaecology, or dermatology.

This depends upon the nature of the problem a patient has and the kind of medical professional that needs to get the work done.

Similarly, if a patient is confirmed to have pre-cancerous lesions in the epithelium of the cervix as detected by colposcopy after the application of mild (3-5%) acetic acid and visualized under the microscope, they can proceed to treat these pre-cancerous lesions with thermocoagulation.

But this has to be verified by a licensed medical professional, who might require you to do a PAP smear test before a colposcopy to confirm your condition.

Chronic cervicitis is a general condition when there is inflammation of the cervix that opens into the vagina.

These conditions can also be effectively treated with thermal ablation when diagnosed early.

These inflammations can be due to the precancerous lesions that have appeared in the squamous epithelium of the cervix, which, if left undiagnosed and untreated, can grow into cancer.

Advantages of Thermocoagulation

Since it is user-friendly, inexpensive, and durable, it is the preferred technique in this day and age.

This is because the system operates solely on electrical power and requires no gas for its operation, unlike cryotherapy. Moreover, treatment with this is fast, does not depend on system infrastructure, and is easy to learn.

Similarly, this treatment method requires no local anaesthesia, as compared to other techniques, as the device is administered for a very short amount of time (less than 2 minutes), which is an added advantage.

Along with the fact that it is fairly simple to use, requiring no enduring training for the staff to understand how to operate.

Various other benefits of using thermocoagulation instead of cryotherapy include as follows:

  • It is affordable and easy to use
  • Requires minimal use of electricity
  • Moreover, it is a painless procedure with minimal adverse reactions.
  • Not to mention the fact that the requirement of refrigeration gas for cryotherapy can be a challenge in many low- and middle-income countries, which is the reason why thermocoagulation has been an attractive alternative.

How is Thermocoagulation Done?

Thermocoagulation is often carried out with a device that heats the tissue through a probe or applicator inserted into the problem area.

Various techniques, such as radiofrequency, laser, and electrocautery, can be utilized to heat the tissue, depending on the nature of the ailment and the treatment required.

This totally depends on the location and type of tissue being treated, along with the equipment available and the medical professional’s expertise.

Here are the ways in which it is performed systematically.

  1. Heat is given to the tissue when the probe or applicator is in close proximity to the cervical tissue until it achieves the desired temperature.
  2. The tissue’s proteins become denatured and coagulate as a result of the heat, resulting in the formation of a clot.
  3. In order to numb the area and lessen pain, the surgery may be carried out under local anaesthesia.

Precautions and Preparations

Before performing thermocoagulation, there are various precautions and preparations that should be made:

  1. You need to discuss any allergies or sensitivities you may have, as well as any drugs you may be taking at the time, with your healthcare professional.
  2. Discuss any inquiries or worries that you have with your doctor regarding the operation.
  3. Follow the doctor’s preparation guidelines, such as fasting or taking specific drugs if they are given.
  4. Dress comfortably and loosely for the appointment.
  5. Take off any jewellery or other items that can obstruct the operation.
  6. Females who screen positive for an invasive or glandular condition such as adenocarcinoma in situ are not eligible for ablative therapy such as thermocoagulation, so it’s well recommended that you talk to your health care professional before you make any decisions.

To guarantee a safe and effective surgery, it’s crucial to strictly adhere to the medical provider’s instructions.

Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any worries or inquiries.

Risks and Complications

Here are some risks and complications involved in doing thermocoagulation.

  1. Pain: The surgery has the potential to produce some discomfort and pain, although these effects are typically mild and transient.
  2. Infection: There is always a danger of infection with any surgery that involves rupturing of cells and tissues, as with this one, which might give various signs and symptoms such as fever, pain in the lower abdomen, and foul-smelling discharge.
  3. Increased vaginal discharge: There is a good chance of increased vaginal discharge with a foul smell until 6 weeks after you have done thermocoagulation.
  4. A nerve injury is a real possibility and could result in numbness or tingling in the treated area.

Prior to the treatment, it is crucial to go over the risks and potential problems of thermocoagulation pertaining to your condition with a medical professional, and follow-up must always be done after 6 weeks and 1 year of doing this treatment.

Where to Book an Appointment?

We have the best gynecologists in town if you require thermocoagulation for cervical cancer prevention in Nepal for any of your female reproductive health.

All you need to do is book an appointment with us by giving us a call at 01-5400400 or 9863393960 (Jawalakhel), 01-6617401 (Bhaktapur) or through our social media handles.


To sum it up, thermocoagulation is an alternative medical condition that involves the use of heat to destroy tissues and is used to treat conditions such as chronic cervicitis.

While heat, which is the primary source of energy for this procedure, is harnessed from an electric current, laser, or generator of some kind in the operating room.

Thus, overall, thermocoagulation has been an effective treatment procedure for health professionals to target and destroy specific tissues while minimizing damage to surrounding health professionals.

C. Campbell et al. (2018), “Use of Thermocoagulation within a “Screen and Treat” cervical cancer screening program in Malawi: Outcomes at One Year, Professional Perspectives, and Client Experience,” Journal of Global Oncology.

Dean Wallace, M.D., “Difference between Thermocoagulation and Cryotherapy,” Liger Medical Homepage

Stacey A. Toms et al. (2011), “Thermocoagulation in the management of chronic pain: a systematic review,” Pain Medicine Journal

Robert Moore and David H. van Thiel, Reference book on “Thermocoagulation in Gynecology”

WHO (2019), Guidelines for the use of thermal ablation for cervical pre-cancer lesions

WISAP (Medical Technology GmbH), Article on How Does Thermocoagulation Work?

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